Adverse effect is an external manifestation of the irregularity of a machine.
Algorithm for solving inventive problems is a specified sequence of actions, following which the solver arrives either at the problem solution or at the understanding why it is impossible to have a solution and how the problem should be restated to achieve the positive result.
Alternative systems are a particular type of competing systems which have at least one pair of “mirror-like” properties: where one system has an apparent advantage, the other one has an obvious disadvantage, and vice versa.
Bifurcation point – when working under an algorithm – is a critical moment when it is necessary to make a fundamental choice which direction to follow.
Competing systems are systems performing the same function by different methods. The methods of performing the function differ by the physical principle and are determined by the cost and the circumstances.
Conflict is a negative interaction of a machine components which manifests itself in emergence of a harmful product. In a conflict interaction, one of the components is exposed to an action – it is an object being processed, another component (tool) performs a harmful action.
Conflict cause is an event preceding the conflict and directly or indirectly causing occurrence of the conflict.
Conflict origin is an event causing occurrence of a chain of other related events resulting in a conflict.
Conflict resolution hypothesis (current hypothesis) is a generalized assumption of under which conditions the existing conflict can be resolved.
Contradiction is a discrepancy between the need and the ability to satisfy it.
~administrative is a contradiction between the need to address an issue and the unknown of the method to satisfy this need.
~technical is a contradiction consisting in the fact that improvement of an
operation parameter of a technical system results in unacceptable deterioration of another one.
~physical is a contradiction consisting in the fact that a property of a system or its component is subject to mutually exclusive requirements.
Desired result is the goal of transforming the technical system when solving a problem: improving some of its qualities or eliminating the defects.
Development laws of technical systems are the general directions of development of any technical systems determined by G. S. Altshuller and his colleagues.They include the following laws:
- of the system-parts completeness
- of “energy conductivity” of the system
- of adjustment of the system rhythmics
- of increase in ideality
- of uneven development of the system parts
- of transition to the supersystem
- of increase in dynamism
- of transition to the microlevel
- of increase in the substance-field degree
Development line is a sequence of generalised transformations which is the same for numerous evolving technical systems.
~basic is a development line describing the general transformations of technical systems without a reference to a particular technical system. List of basic lines.
~specific is a sequence of options of a real technical system obtained as a result of applying generalised transformations to it (corresponding to the basic development line).
Effect is a natural phenomenon which can be used to transform a technical system when solving a problem. The effect is described according to a certain model:
- an input action;
- an object acted upon;
- the result of acting upon the object (output).
~geometrical is an effect at which a change in the geometrical shape of an object results in occurrence of some new properties.
~physical is an effect at which the physical impact on an object results in energy conversion, transition of matter into a new phase, occurrence of fields, a change in the properties of the object etc.
~chemical is an effect at which the chemical interaction among atoms and molecules of matter results in occurrence of a field or action or occurrence of new properties of the object
Engineering experience is the personal fund of knowledge and skills of an engineer formed as a set of the fundamental education, technical outlook, and information about similar problems solved.
Final solution is a description of a complex transformation of a technical system which takes into account the most useful particular transformations described earlier in preliminary solutions.
Function of the technical system is the intended purpose expressed in an action aimed at changing the state of tangible objects. The function can be imagined as an interaction of two components – the tool and the object being processed. The tool acts upon the object being processed, converts it, and produces the product: the result of performing the function.
Functional model is a simplified diagrammatic model of a technical device. It enables to get an overall idea of the composition, structure, and functional relations among the components.
Functional pair is a functional model which includes two components only. At the same time, it is determined which component is the tool (acts upon) and which is the object being processed (is acted upon).
Hill-like diagram of the problem solution is a diagram illustrating the process of solving any problem. The diagram shows three transitions: from a problem statement to an abstract problem model; from the abstract problem model to an abstract solution model; from the abstract solution model to a specific solution.
Operational parameter is a parameter describing how a technical system performs the function for which it is intended.
Ideality is the ratio of a complex parameter characterising the benefit from performance of the function of the technical system to the costs of its operation. Ideality is described by the formula
I = O / E,
where I is the ideality of the technical system;
O is the benefit of the system work (its operation);
E is the expenses of performing this function.
Ideal end result is the solution of the problem without introducing additional components into the technical system, by transforming the existing components and/or connections among them.
Inertia of thought (psychological inertia) is a property of thinking consisting in the unwillingness or lack of ability to depart from the existing ideas and premises. It manifests by use of obvious solutions and familiar methods of overcoming difficulties.
Insight is an intellectual phenomenon consisting in an unexpected discovery of a solution for a problem.
Issue is a set of circumstances which includes one or more undesirable effects. In the case of technical issues, these circumstances are usually related to a machine (equipment, device, installation, production unit etc.).
Harmful product is a product which is produced by operation of a harmful system and results in occurrence of an undesirable effect.
List of resources available is a list of substance, field, temporal and spatial resources present in a technical system and its immediate surroundings.
Main useful function of a technical system is the purpose of the technical system; the action for which it is designed and produced.
Machine is a real technical system; a device, mechanism, installation, equipment created to perform a useful function.
Model is a simplified presentation of a real object with separation of its features most essential for the analysis carried out.
Object being processed is a component of a technical system which is exposed to the effect to get a useful product.
Operational area is a place in a system which should be changed to resolve a conflict.
Optimization is improvement of a technical system by changing the parameters of its subsystems. The optimization goal is to achieve the best operation parameters of a system being transformed.
Place of the conflict is an area in the technical system where a conflicting interaction of its components occurs.
Preliminary solution is a concept of transforming a technical system or the conditions of its operation which describes one of the methods to solve the problem.
Problem is the statement of a specific goal for addressing an issue: how to perform certain transformations of a technical system; how to create certain conditions etc. A problem stated well includes the following information: a description of the circumstances, an indication to a conflict, a suggestion of a method to resolve the conflict, and the question of how to implement this method in the specific circumstances of the technical system being improved.
associated ~ is a problem concerning the ways of removing the obstacles of practical implementation of a promising but not specific enough idea of transforming the technical system or concerning elimination of a non-critical but significant defect of a new version of the technical system.
similar ~ is a problem similar to the one being solved in some aspects: the operation principle of the technical system, a parameter being improved, restrictions, presence of similar resources. Problems can have a deeper analogy: by a specific technical or physical contradiction.
Problem model is a simplified presentation of a problem in the form of a verbal description, a flow chart etc.
— "Conditions in operational zone" is a problem model describing the conditions which should be obtained in the operational area in a simplified form. The formalised problem model consists of four parts: a short statement, an indication of the operational area, a list of resources available, an indication of constraints.
— "Action in operational zone" is a problem model demonstrating the components of the operational area and their interaction.
— "Technical conradiction" is a problem model that includes a technical contradiction between the two parameters of the useful system: the improvement of one of the parameters causes an unacceptable deterioration of the other.
— "Physical contradiction" is a problem model including a contradiction between mutually exclusive requirements for the same parameter of a component or its part. The analogue of a physical contradiction in the TRIZ.
Product is the result of transformation of an object being processed during the operation of a machine. The product can be of consumer value and can also be incidental or even harmful.
Requirements for the resource are a description of the conditions to which the resource should correspond to enable transition from a solution model to a preliminary solution of the problem.
Resource attribute is an inherent feature of the object (e.g. for technical objects, it is the position in space, material, dynamism etc.).
Resources are anything which can be used to transform a technical system in order to solve a problem: substances, fields, time, space, and information.
~spatial are all free space in the operational area and in other parts of a technical system, including that one which can be obtained as a result of any transformation of tangible resources: cavities, gaps among components, features of the geometric form and internal structure of components etc.
~field are all types of energy, physical fields as well as all forces and interactions among tangible objects.
~immediately available are natural and technical resources which extraction and use do not require significant expenses and their quantity is tentatively unlimited.
~temporal are time periods before, during or after a conflict event in question which can be used to prevent, neutralise or adjust its negative consequences.
~substance are all substances in any physical state (solid, liquid, gas, plasma, vacuum), their mixtures as well as all technical and natural objects.
Short problem statement is the problem presentation in a generalised and understandable form. This statement describes what happens, which components participate, and how they interact, what is the defect, and what should be changed.
Solution model is a description of a proposed fundamental change in a useful system or its individual components to resolve a conflict.
Substance-field model is a problem model in which the components of the operational area are replaced with conventional “substances”, and the methods of their interaction with “fields.” Such a model is called “substance-field” (from substance + field).
Subsystem is an integral part of a technical system. It can be considered as a system of a lower hierarchical level.
Supersystem is a system of higher hierarchical level including the technical system under analysis as one of its components.
System is a set of related components which has an integrative property, i.e. a property which each component separately and their unorganised totality cannot have.
~abstract is a system represented by an abstract model (verbal, diagrammatic, mathematical).
~harmful is a self-organizing set of components of a machine producing a harmful product.
~single technical is a particular type of technical systems in which only one energy conversion occurs. The structure of such a technical system includes components performing the roles of the engine, transmission, tool, object being processed, energy source and control.
~ideal is a technical system which operation costs are negligible compared to the benefit of the action it performs.
~engineering is a system built on the basis of a machine, a technical device.
~useful is a concept similar to the concept of the “technical system”. A set of components organised for production of a useful product.
~actual is a related set of tangible components. In the technical world, the actual systems are machines (devices, mechanisms, equipment etc.).
~technical is a particular type of systems consciously and purposefully organised by a person to perform some necessary work, get a desired product.
Tool is a component of the technical system which directly participates in the performance of its function acting upon the object being processed.
Useful product is a tangible result created during the machine operation which has a certain consumer value.